Ticagrelor Alone Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy From 1 Month After Drug-Eluting Coronary Stenting
Author(s) Franzone A.; Piccolo R.; McFadden E.; Leonardi S.; Ferrario M. et al.
Source Journal of the American College of Cardiology; Nov 2019; vol. 74 (no. 18); p. 2223-2234
Background: The GLOBAL LEADERS (GLOBAL LEADERS: A Clinical Study Comparing Two Forms of Anti-platelet Therapy After Stent Implantation) study randomly assigned 15,991 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) followed by 23-month ticagrelor monotherapy or conventional 12-month DAPT followed by 12-month aspirin. Apart from Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI), all study endpoints were analyzed as investigator reported.
Objective(s): This was a pre-specified ancillary study assessing whether experimental therapy is noninferior, and if met, superior, to conventional treatment for the coprimary efficacy endpoint of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, or urgent target vessel revascularization and superior in preventing BARC 3 (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) or 5 bleeding (coprimary safety endpoint) at 2 years with a 0.025 significance level to preserve nominal 5% alpha error. Method(s): An independent clinical event committee adjudicated investigator-reported and eventually unreported events of 7,585 patients from the 20 top-enrolling participating sites.
Result(s): The 2-year coprimary efficacy endpoint occurred in 271 (7.14%) and in 319 (8.41%) patients in the experimental and conventional groups, respectively (rate ratio [RR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.99), fulfilling noninferiority (p noninferiority <0.001), but not superiority (p superiority = 0.0465). The rates of BARC 3 or 5 bleeding did not differ (RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.33; p = 0.986). A time-dependent treatment effect was observed with the experimental strategy being associated with a lower risk of MI (RR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.88; p interaction = 0.062) and definite stent thrombosis (RR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.63; p interaction = 0.007) after 1-year post-percutaneous coronary intervention. Conclusion(s): Ticagrelor monotherapy after 1-month DAPT was noninferior, but not superior, to conventional treatment in the prevention of ischemic events, and it did not decrease major bleeding risk as compared with conventional treatment. (GLOBAL LEADERS Adjudication Sub-Study [GLASSY]; NCT03231059).Copyright © 2019 American College of Cardiology Foundation
Transition from fetus to neonate
Author(s) Gupta A.; Paria A.
Source Surgery (United Kingdom); 2019
This article provides an overview of the key physiological changes that take place as the fetus transtitions to neonatal life. It provides and an overview of fetal transition with a focus on respiratory and cardiovascular changes.Copyright © 2019
Radiation protection value to the operator from augmented reality smart glasses in interventional fluoroscopy procedures using phantoms
Author(s) Dorey S.; Gray L.; Tootell A.; Higgins R.; Hogg P. et al.
Source Radiography; Nov 2019; vol. 25 (no. 4); p. 301-307
Introduction: Smart glasses can be adapted to display radiographic images to allow clinician's gaze not to be directionally fixed or predetermined by computer monitor location. This study presents an analysis of eye lens dose during interventional fluoroscopy guided procedures, comparing fixed monitor positions against the use of smart glasses.
Method(s): Using a head phantom (simulating the clinician), thermoluminescent dosimeters and lead shielded glasses, the dose to the eye was measured for different head 'rotations and tilts' for: gaze directed towards the main scattering source (patient/primary beam) to represent potential gaze direction if smart glasses are used; gaze directed to a range of potential computer monitor positions. An anthropomorphic pelvis phantom was utilised to simulate the patient. Accumulated dose rates (muGy s1) from five 10-second exposures at 75 kV 25.2 mAs were recorded.
Result(s): An average DAP reading of 758.84 cGy cm2 was measured during each 10 second exposure. Whilst wearing lead shielded glasses a 6.10 - fold reduction in dose rate to the lens is possible (p < 0.05). Influence of the direction of gaze by the clinician demonstrated a wide range of dose rate reduction from 3.13% (p = 0.16) to 143.69% (p < 0.05) when the clinician's gaze was towards the main scattering source. Increased dose rate to the clinician's eyes was received despite wearing lead shielded glasses, as the angle of gaze moved 45degree and 90degree from 0degree.
Conclusion(s): If the clinician's gaze is directed towards the main scattering source a potential exists for reducing eye lens dose compared with fixed location computer monitors. Introduction of lead lined smart glasses into interventional radiology may lead to improvements in patient care, reducing the need for the clinician to look away from the patient to observe a radiographic image.Copyright © 2019
Improving control of lingual split propagation in sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible
Author(s) Tebbutt J.E.; Graham R.M.; Markose G.
Source Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England; Nov 2019; vol. 101 (no. 8); p. 619-620
The efficacy of the secondary Extension Technique in the management of arterio-venous fistula-associated steal syndrome
Author(s) Hansrani V.; Muhammad K.; Charlswood N.; Al-Khaffaf H.
Source Journal of Vascular Access; Nov 2019; vol. 20 (no. 6); p. 592-596
Background: Dialysis-associated steal syndrome remains a difficult clinical scenario for vascular access surgeons. The ideal treatment would improve blood flow to the hand without compromising the fistula; however, most treatment options rarely allow for both. The study describes an innovative technique used in clinical practice over a 17-year period for the treatment of dialysis-associated steal syndrome. The procedure and long-term results are discussed.
Method(s): 27 patients with dialysis-associated steal syndrome were recruited over 17 years at two large UK University Teaching Hospitals and treated with the extension technique. All patients included were assessed for resolution of their symptoms, patency of the fistula and adequacy of needling.
Result(s): 27 patients were admitted with dialysis-associated steal syndrome and underwent surgery using the extension technique. Complete symptom resolution was seen in 26 of the 27 patients (96%), with improvements in pain, sensori-motor disturbance and temperature. All 26 patients had a patent fistula at 6-months' follow-up. At 12 months, 3 of 27 (11.1%) developed fistula thrombosis which could not be salvaged and 2 of 27 (7.4%) developed thrombosis successfully salvaged by fistulaplasty.
Conclusion(s): Our study shows that the Extension Technique is an effective treatment method for dialysis-associated steal syndrome and results have demonstrated a high level of fistula patency and a low rate of complications. It has several advantages when compared with other established treatment methods and has the versatility to be used as a method for dialysis-associated steal syndrome prevention in high-risk groups as well as treatment.Copyright © The Author(s) 2019.
Author(s) Katsogridakis E.; Perricone V.; Pokusevski G.
Source Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery; 2019; vol. 28 (no. 4); p. 635-637
A best evidence topic in vascular surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether sartorius muscle flaps (SMF) can be effectively used in the setting of complex groin wounds with exposed prosthetic grafts for graft salvage and limb salvage. The literature review identified 33 articles reporting on the use of SMF for complex vascular wounds. Of these, 7 articles reporting on the use of 539 SMFs were considered the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Indications included surgical site infections with or without wound dehiscence, lymph leaks, graft infection and groin pseudoaneurysms, whereas in 98 of the included 539 cases, the flaps were performed prophylactically. Vacuum-assisted closure systems were used in 25 cases to promote healing. The use of an SMF is associated with low rates of muscle flap and graft complications, whereas outcomes seem to be independent of the presence of occlusive disease in the superficial femoral artery. They can be effectively combined with aggressive debridement strategies and vacuum-assisted closure devices to optimize outcomes. The published literature supports the use of SMF in the management of complex groin wounds following vascular reconstruction and is associated with encouraging flap, limb and graft salvage rates.Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).
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