Breast cancer stromal clotting activation (Tissue Factor and thrombin): A pre-invasive phenomena that is prognostic in invasion
Author(s) Shaker H.; Bundred N.J.; Castle J.; Kirwan C.C.; Landberg G. et al.
Source Cancer Medicine; Mar 2020; vol. 9 (no. 5); p. 1768-1778
Background: Tumor stroma, of which fibroblasts are the most abundant cell, resembles a non-healing wound, where a procoagulant environment creates a permissive milieu for cancer growth. We aimed to determine if tumor expression of coagulation factors (procoagulant phenotype), and systemic hypercoagulability, occur at the preinvasive (ductal carcinoma in situ; DCIS) stage and correlate with breast cancer subtype, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS).
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