The automaton as a surgeon: the future of artificial intelligence in emergency and general surgery
Author(s) Rimmer L.; Bashir M.; Howard C.; Picca L.
Source European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society; Jun 2021; vol. 47 (no. 3); p. 757-762
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field involving computational simulation of human intelligence processes; these applications of deep learning could have implications in the specialty of emergency surgery (ES). ES is a rapidly advancing area, and this review will outline the most recent advances. METHOD(S): A literature search encompassing the uses of AI in surgery was conducted across large databases (Pubmed, OVID, SCOPUS). Two doctors (LR, CH) both collated relevant papers and appraised them. Papers included were published within the last 5 years, and a "snowball effect" used to collate further relevant literature. RESULT(S): AI has been shown to provide value in predicting surgical outcomes and giving personalised patient risks based on inputted data. Further to this, image recognition technology within AI has showed success in fracture identification and breast cancer diagnosis. Regarding theatre presence, supervised robots have carried out suturing and anastomosis of bowel in controlled environments to a high standard. CONCLUSION(S): AI has potential for integration across surgical services, from diagnosis to treatment, and aiding the surgeon in key decision-making for risks per patient. Fully automated surgery may be the future, but at present, AI needs human supervision.
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